In the next few years, communications companies will deploy thousands of antenna systems to fuel next-generation 5G. The 5G broadband system will support connections for artificial intelligence.
To expand network capacity, providers are packing more cell sites into specific geographic areas. Low-power antennas, including small cell and DAS (distributed antenna system), are being overlaid to supplement current coverage and capacity. They also enable mobile devices to reuse available spectrum.
Small Cells and DAS: A Critical Investment in 5G
“5G is not just about better phone coverage,” noted Colby Synesael, Managing Director and Senior Research Analyst at Cowen & Co, who has been closely tracking the technology.
Faster wireless will enable new services. Communications companies expect it will monetize utility infrastructure to offset installation costs.
How are Small Cells and DAS Deployed?
Small cell and DAS do not generate a cellular signal; they distribute an existing signal. An external radio frequency (RF) source feeds a signal to the small cell, which distributes the signal to its network of antennas. Then, it distributes the signal to users.
Small cell and DAS need both antenna and transmission equipment; this equipment is installed on joint use infrastructure. Outdoor DAS and small cells are designed for low-height antennas, which often have limited coverage and need to address abundant interference. Even foliage can interfere with the wireless signal.
While each individual small cell node requires its own dedicated power source and backhaul source, DAS is composed of multiple remote antennas that all connect to a single base transceiver station (or multiple transceivers to serve multiple carriers).
Current Deployment Challenges
The challenges that telecoms face about small cell deployment include:
- A DAS that serves multiple carriers needs a concentrated and coordinated effort, as well as someone to manage the project.
- Small cell is easier to deploy. DAS applications are reviewed in total – an objection to any part of the DAS application holds up the entire request. Each wireless provider has different objectives and may not need the same locations.
- Each wireless provider has different deployment times, and requiring DAS may force one carrier to wait if others are not ready.
- DAS costs more because it is designed for requirements of the most advanced user. So, if carrier A needs feature X (even if carrier B doesn't) then the system will include feature X.
- Companies deploying small cell must negotiate agreements with local municipalities. This can sometimes be a complicated and lengthy process.
The Future Challenges of Small Cell and DAS
Stay tuned for the next few blog posts on small cell deployment. We will feature topics for both owners and attaching companies.
Share your thoughts on 5G, small cell, or DAS in the comments. Help us start a dialogue about these current industry trends.